<- Home <- Arhive <- Vol. 4, Issue 4, December 2008



GINECOeu4(4)230-237(2008)
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Nipple Discharge: Evaluation and Management

S. Zervoudis, P. Economides, G. Iatrakis, D. Polyzos, K. Lykeridou, I. Navrozoglou


Abstract: Nipple discharge is a common symptom women complain of. It is classified as normal or abnormal depending on features such as laterality, cycle variation, quantity, color or presentation (induced vs spontaneous). It can be related to benign conditions such as intraductal papilloma, duct ectasia, plasma cell mastitis, galactorrhea or malignant such as ductal or papillary carcinoma. Techniques used in nipple discharge evaluation include mammography, ultrasound, cytology, duct endoscopy, the mammary pump, ductography, immunochemical methods and surgical excision of the pathological ducts.
Keywords: nipple discharge, galactorrhea, papilloma, duct ectasia, mammary pump

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